An Object Oriented Analysis Of Air Traffic Control


Celesta Ball
Rebecca Kim
WP 90W00542
August 1991
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited
MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia

Table Of Contents


1 INTRODUCTION
     1.1 BACKGROUND
     1.2 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE
     1.3 DOCUMENT ORGANIZATION

2 METHODOLOGY
     2.1 THE OBJECT-ORIENTED ANALYSIS TASK
     2.2 MODELING CONCEPTS
          2.2.1 Classes and Objects
          2.2.2 Instance Connections and Message Connections
          2.2.3 Structures
          2.2.4 Subjects
          2.2.5 Views
          2.2.6 Model Specification
     2.3 MODEL USAGE
          2.3.1 Reference Model
          2.3.2 Evaluation of Experiment vs. Legacy Software
          2.3.3 Extensibility and Reusability
     2.4 IMPLICATIONS FOR OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN

3 DOMAIN ANALYSIS
     3.1 ATC
          3.1.1 Scope of the ATC Model
          3.1.2 Evolution of ATC from Air Traffic 
     3.2 THE ATC MODEL
          3.2.1 The User Subject
               3.2.1.1 The Aircraft Class
               3.2.1.2 The Ground Vehicle Class
               3.2.1.3 The Flight and Vehicle Classes
               3.2.1.4 The Clearance Class
               3.2.1.5 The Air Traffic, Ground Traffic, and Traffic Classes
          3.2.2 The Resource Subject
               3.2.2.1 The Airspace/Ground Resource Class
               3.2.2.2 The Surveillance Resource Class
               3.2.2.3 The Navigation Resource Class
               3.2.2.4 The Communications Resource Class
               3.2.2.5 The Aviation Weather Resource Class
          3.2.3 The Manager Subject
          3.2.4 Instance Connections
               3.2.4.1 User-Manager Instance Connections
               3.2.4.2 Manager-Resource Instance Connections
               3.2.4.3 User-Resource Instance Connections
               3.2.4.4 User-User Instance Connections
          3.2.5 Message Connections
          3.2.6 Views
               3.2.6.1 Clearance to Enter Airport Movement Area Event
               3.2.6.2 Handoff to Flight Manager (Flight State Change) Event
               3.2.6.3 Problem Detection and Resolution Events
               3.2.6.4 Airspace/Ground Resource Saturation Detection
                       and Resolution Event
               3.2.6.5 Clearance Delivery (Communications) Event
               3.2.6.6 NAVAID Use (Navigation) Event
               3.2.6.7 Tracking (Surveillance) Event
               3.2.6.8 Weather Events
          3.2.7 Model Specification

4 PROBLEM ANALYSIS
     4.1 THE EXPERIMENT
          4.1.1 Analysis of the Experiment vs. the ATC Model
          4.1.2 The Experiment Model
               4.1.2.1 The User Subject
               4.1.2.2 The Resource Subject
               4.1.2.3 The Manager Subject
               4.1.2.4 Event View: Handoff of a Flight from En Route Controller
                       to Terminal Controller
     4.2 MAPPING THE LEGACY SOFTWARE ONTO THE ATC MODEL
          4.2.1 TASF
               4.2.1.1 Analysis of TASF vs. the ATC Model
               4.2.1.2 The TASF Model
          4.2.2 AERA 2
               4.2.2.1 Analysis of AERA 2 vs. the ATC Model
               4.2.2.2 The AERA 2 Model
     4.3 AN ASSESSMENT OF NEEDED CAPABILITIES

Appendix A ATC MODEL SPECIFICATIONS
Appendix B EXPERIMENT MODEL SPECIFICATIONS
Appendix C TASF MODEL SPECIFICATIONS
Appendix D AERA 2 MODEL SPECIFICATIONS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY
GLOSSARY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many individuals contributed to this report, by offering advice in refining concepts, by sharing ATC expertise, and by reviewing and commenting on draft versions of particular sections.

The authors appreciate the lively discussions with Anne C. Deslattes (an original member of the OOA Phase 2 team) and have benefitted from her experiences in systems analysis and design.

Many graciously responded to our requests for ATC and legacy software knowledge, including Richard A. Rucker (on ATC in general and on many detailed topics); Anand D. Mundra (on the terminal airspace environment); Robert M. Tarakan and Shaula E. Doyle (on TASF); John A. Summers, Niamh M. Burke, and Barbara C. Zimmerman (on the AERA 2 CHI Prototype); and many others. Duane W. Small was the source of information for the original (December 1990) definition of the experiment.

We gratefully acknowledge those who took time to comment on draft versions and to work with us on revisions, including Patsy Ryberg (on the methodology); Duane W. Small (on the methodology, the ATC model, and the experiment in particular, and on the entire document in general); Shaula E. Doyle (on TASF); Norma J. Taber (on the methodology and the ATC model); and Pamela A. Dargan (on the methodology).

Most especially, we thank Richard K. Sciambi, our peer reviewer, for his insightful and timely comments. Reviewing a large document which applies new techniques to a complex and evolving subject area was surely tedious and time-consuming, and we appreciate his diligence.

LIST OF REFERENCES

Ball, C. G. and N. J. Taber, June 1990, AERA 2 Algorithmic Specification, MTR-89W155, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Booch, G., 1991, Object-Oriented Design With Applications, Redwood City, CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.

Coad, P. and E. Yourdon, 1991, Object-Oriented Analysis, Second Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Yourdon Press

Luffsey, W. S., 1990, Air Traffic Control: How To Become An FAA Air Traffic Controller, New York, NY: Random House.

Mayo, J. J., 19 January 1990, AERA 2 CHI Prototype Functional Description, WP-89W117, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Nolan, M. S. 1990, Fundamentals of Air Traffic Control, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Shlaer, S. and S. Mellor, 1988, Object-Oriented Systems Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Springen, A. L., November 1989, National Airspace System Airport Movement Area Control Operational Concept, WP-89W181 (Also DOT/FAA/DS-89/33), The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Airman's Information Manual.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Aviation Regulations Parts 91 and 135.

Winblad, A. L., S. D. Edwards, and D. R. King, 1990, Object-Oriented Software, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Argyropoulos, A., October 1989, National Airspace System Flight Planning Operational Concept NAS-SR-1310 (Also DOT/FAA/DS-89/30), The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Ball, C. G. and N. J. Taber, June 1990, AERA 2 Algorithmic Specification, MTR-89W155, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Booch, G., 1991, Object-Oriented Design With Applications, Redwood City, CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.

Boyd, K. T., 1990, ATP-FAR 135: Airline Transport Pilot, Second Edition, Ames, IO: Iowa State University Press.

Coad, P. and E. Yourdon, 1991, Object-Oriented Analysis, Second Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Yourdon Press

Clausing, D. J., 1987, The Aviator's Guide to Modern Navigation, Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books.

Duke, G. R., 1984, Air Traffic Control, London: Ian Allan Ltd.

Fraser, S. B., September 1989, National Airspace System Airspace Management Operational Concept NAS-SR-1321 (Also DOT/FAA/DS-89/29), The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Harston, B., 1990, IFR Communications Manual: Radio Procedures For Instrument Flight, New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Iadeluca, J. P., March 1989, National Airspace System Approach and Departure Sequencing Operational Concept NAS-SR-1322 (Also DOT/FAA/DS-89/25), The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Illman, P. E., 1989, The Pilot's Air Traffic Control Handbook, Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books.

Illman, P. E., 1991, The Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books.

Luffsey, W. S., 1990, Air Traffic Control: How To Become An FAA Air Traffic Controller, New York, NY: Random House.

Mayo, J. J., 19 January 1990, AERA 2 CHI Prototype Functional Description, WP-89W117, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Mullin, M., 1990, Rapid Prototyping for Object-Oriented Systems, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

Mundra, A. D., March 1989, A Description of Air Traffic Control In The Current Terminal Airspace Environment, MTR-88W167, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Private Pilot Manual, 1983, Englewood, CO: Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc.

Nolan, M. S. 1990, Fundamentals of Air Traffic Control, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Rumbaugh, J. et al., 1991, Object-Oriented Modeling and Design, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Sharmer, M. and J. Randlett, January 1990, National Airspace System Aircraft Separation Operational Concept NAS-SR-1323 (Also DOT/FAA/DS-90/1), The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Shlaer, S. and S. Mellor, 1988, Object-Oriented Systems Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Springen, A. L., November 1989, National Airspace System Airport Movement Area Control Operational Concept, WP-89W181 (Also DOT/FAA/DS-89/33), The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Stewart, J., 1989, Avoiding Common Pilot Errors: An Air Traffic Controller's View, Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Airman's Information Manual.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Aviation Regulations Parts 91 and 135.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, September 1989, National Airspace System Plan: Facilities, Equipment, Associated Development and Other Capital Needs.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, January 1988, The Federal Aviation Administration Plan for Research, Engineering and Development.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Order 7110.65: Air Traffic Control.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Order 7110.83: Oceanic Air Traffic Control.

Winblad, A. L., S. D. Edwards, and D. R. King, 1990, Object-Oriented Software, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

GLOSSARY


6-MITF    six-month illustration of technical feasibility

AAS       Advanced Automation System
ACARS     ARINC Communications Addressing and Reporting System
ACF       area control facility
AERA      Automated En Route Air Traffic Control
AGD       Adaptive Ground Delay
AIM       Airman's Information Manual
APDIA     Automated Problem Detection Inhibited Area
ARINC     Aeronautical Radio, Inc.
ARSA      airport radar services area
ARSR      air route surveillance radar
ARTCC     air route traffic control center
ARTS      Automated Radar Terminal System
ATA       airport traffic area
ATC       air traffic control 
ATCRBS    Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System
ATCT      air traffic control tower

BRITE     bright radar indicator tower equipment

CHI       computer-human interface

DME       distance measuring equipment
DUAT      Direct User Access Terminal
DYSIM     dynamic simulator

FAA       Federal Aviation Administration
FAR       Federal Aviation Regulations
FSS       flight service station 

HRR       highest-ranked resolution

IAS       indicated airspeed
ICAO      International Civil Aviation Organization
IFR       instrument flight rule
I-Lab     Integration and Interaction Laboratory
ILS       instrument landing system
INS       inertial navigation system

JFK       John F. Kennedy

LORAN     long-range navigation

MLS       microwave landing system

NAS       National Airspace System
NAVAID    navigational aid
NDB       nondirectional radio beacon
NSL       National Simulation Laboratory

OOA       object-oriented analysis

PAR       preferential arrival route
PDAR      preferential departure and arrival route
PDR       preferential departure route
PVD       Plan View Display

RDP       radar data processing
RNAV      area navigation

SID       standard instrument departure
STAR      standard terminal arrival route

TAAS      Terminal Advanced Automation System
TASF      Terminal Area Simulation Facility
TCA       terminal control area
TRACON    terminal approach control

UTC       coordinated universal time

VFR       visual flight rule
VHF       very high frequency
VLF       very low frequency
VOR       VHF omnidirectional range



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